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Posts Tagged ‘presidential’

Utopian Movements in American History

The 19th century saw the rise of many utopian movements. Individuals who followed these movements were seeking a different life and hoping for a perfect society. Most of these were founded on the idea of communism and shared responsibility. From these, only the Mormons have continued on, though present day Mormonism is much different from the past. Following is an article that takes a look at the major utopian movements of the 19th century. While most of them failed, many had lasting effects.

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Presidential Religions

This site catalogues the Presidents and their religious associations.  My biggest issue is that the often do several per president, which I get on one level and yet on another, I think they should have picked the one they most identified with.   This site also is a combination of good sources and ones I would never use.  So it is neat and can provide some interesting information, but definitely use with care!

Presidential BBQ

I was watching a cooking show on BBQ and they quoted George Washington!  So I had to explore!  This is what started it all:
The definition of barbecue (let alone Spelling) is as problematic today as it was in the time of George Washington when he wrote in his diaries, “went in to Alexandria to a Barbecue and stayed all Night” in 1769. I found a much more enlightening quote from the first president written in a letter to Henry Bouquet in 1758 during the French and Indian war. Washington, complaining of a lack of supplies wrote, “That we have not an Oz. of Salt Provision’s of any kind here, and that it is impossible to preserve the Fresh (especially as we have no Salt) by any other Means than Barbacuing it in the Ind’n manner; in doing which it looses near a half; so that a Party who receives 10 days Provision’s will be obliged to live on little better than 5 days’ allowance of meat.”

Now, on the subject, of BBQ is also Lyndon Johnson’s “state” barbecues!
In April 1961, the new vice president hosted a barbecue for West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer. The American West held a romantic appeal to Europeans, and the attraction was greater to Adenauer because Hill Country had been settled by many German families. According to Hal K. Rothman, author of the book LBJ’s Texas White House,

The American West and its ranching, its barbecues, beans, and chuck wagons, had a cross-cultural resonance that allowed even those raised in other parts of the world to participate in an American myth made universal by popular fiction and the movies. Foreigners could see their preconceived vision of the ‘real America’ in the vistas, settings, entertainment, and libations of the LBJ Ranch. For Europeans, this was all especially poignant; it resonated with the myths they held about the American West. Adenauer’s visit began a universalization of the ranch, its transformation from a place of continental iconography to one of international symbolic meaning.’

This article discusses a lot of Johnson’s BBQs, including this, his largest:
One of the largest barbecues was on April 1, 1967, with 35 Latin American ambassadors and their wives. There was a huge re-enactment of the settling of Texas by Native Americans, followed by Spaniards, then Anglo cowboys, complete with buckboards and cattle. Johnson spoke briefly of his War on Hunger and he pledged three million tons of food grain to India and another $25 million in food for distribution by CARE. After all the guests left, he demonstrated his penchant for micromanagement by telling Social Secretary Bess Abell that “The food needed to be hotter in the future.” It is unclear if he meant chili pepper or thermal heat. But in the next few moments he demonstrated his leadership. When told that Congressman Gonzales was unhappy because so many Republicans had been invited to the barbecue, Johnson replied that he was “President of all the people, Republicans and Democrats.”

Presidential Blunders

What would you rate as the worst presidential blunder? Historians were recently asked this question and ranked Buchanan’s inability to stop the Civil War as the top one followed by Andrew Johnson’s decision to side with Southern whites after the Civil War.  You can check out the article for the full list.

Who Pays for Presidential Perks?

This is a neat little piece on the presidential perks and who pays for them!  For instance, what does it cost to run the White House?
Number three – The White House. For the 2008 fiscal year, Bradley Patterson, a retired Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution, estimated the cost of running the White House was almost $1.6 billion. And that amount didn’t include unpublished classified expenses.

The president’s White house staff also comes at a steep price. In 2012, the White House reported its payroll grew from $37 million in 2011 to $37.8 million. The list includes 468 names. 139 of which make more than $100,000 a year.

Presidential Inauguration Facts

Every four years, America experiences the pomp and circumstance of a presidential inauguration. Over the years, a number of traditions have arisen from starting the day at a religious service to ending it at a ball. Learn more with this list of key presidential inauguration fact.

Presidential Children

So I was reading an article about Jenna Bush Hager’s new job at Southern Living and I happened on this other article on a panel of presidentail children talking about their time in the White House. I found the stories from Steve Ford fun and interesting:
Steve Ford garnered laughs during a panel discussion Thursday with fellow children of former presidents as he recalled dragging a stereo onto the roof with a friend his first night there in 1974.

A teenager at the time his father took office, he said, “I think we were playing like Led Zeppelin’s ‘Stairway to Heaven.’ Literally, it was like ‘Dumb and Dumber.’”


Ford noted that his family got to the White House in a “different way.” His father was appointed vice president after the resignation of Spiro Agnew, and then became president after the resignation of Richard Nixon.


He noted that Nixon’s presidency ended so abruptly that the Nixon family’s possessions were still being packed after Ford was sworn in, so the Ford family returned to their suburban Washington home for several days.


After his father was sworn in, his mother, Betty Ford, fixed the family dinner.


“She looks over at my dad and says, ‘Gerry, something’s wrong here. You just became president of the United States and I’m still cooking,’” he said.

Presidential Children

So I was reading an article about Jenna Bush Hager’s new job at Southern Living and I happened on this other article on a panel of presidentail children talking about their time in the White House. I found the stories from Steve Ford fun and interesting:
Steve Ford garnered laughs during a panel discussion Thursday with fellow children of former presidents as he recalled dragging a stereo onto the roof with a friend his first night there in 1974.

A teenager at the time his father took office, he said, “I think we were playing like Led Zeppelin’s ‘Stairway to Heaven.’ Literally, it was like ‘Dumb and Dumber.’”


Ford noted that his family got to the White House in a “different way.” His father was appointed vice president after the resignation of Spiro Agnew, and then became president after the resignation of Richard Nixon.


He noted that Nixon’s presidency ended so abruptly that the Nixon family’s possessions were still being packed after Ford was sworn in, so the Ford family returned to their suburban Washington home for several days.


After his father was sworn in, his mother, Betty Ford, fixed the family dinner.


“She looks over at my dad and says, ‘Gerry, something’s wrong here. You just became president of the United States and I’m still cooking,’” he said.

Presidential First Cars

So here’s a fun look at presidential cars – and often first cars! Jimmy Carter’s first car was a 1948 Studebaker!

Presidential Campaign Slogans

Presidential campaign slogans are an attempt by the campaigns to sum up either something about their candidate or point out deficiencies in their opponent. Over the years, America has seen many slogans from “I Like Ike” to “Change We Can Believe In.” This year is no different with Obama’s campaign focussing on the slogan “Forward,” while Romney’s campaign uses “Believe in America.” I hope you enjoy reading through my selection of  15 key slogans from historical to present day presidential elections.

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Presidential Conventions

It is that time again….so here are some articles on presidential conventions.

First, 10 weird facts! Here’s one:
In 1944 President Franklin Roosevelt did not attend the Democratic Party convention that nominated him. Instead, highlighting his duties as a wartime president, he delivered his speech by radio from the San Diego Naval Base while on his way to Pearl Harbor.

You can also go check out LIFE’s best GOP convention photos. That 1951 control booth amuses me!  I didn’t see a democratic one…anyone find one?

Top 10 Significant Presidential Elections

As the nomination for Mitt Romney seems to be more and more assured, America is heading into its 57th presidential election. Only time will tell how significant this election will be. The following article takes a look at the ten most significant presidential elections in US history.

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Vice Presidential Entertaining

In honor of former VP Cheney’s heart transplant, I thought I’d do a VP topic.

The Vice Presidents’ residence is a rather new thing, so before that the Vice President simply had quarters somewhere in DC. Garrett Hobart, McKinley’s first Vice President (the one before Teddy Roosevelt), and his wife, Jennie, helped with some of the McKinley’s entertaining at their residence:
Ida McKinley’s epileptic episodes left her confined to the home and unable to perform the typical socialite duties of the First Lady, so it was The Hobarts that generously picked up the slack. Jennie made frequent trips to visit Ida and check up on her in William’s absence. Garret and Jennie Hobart had their residence lavishly decorated to host many a sumptuous feast, afternoon smokers, and a business meeting.

The Federalist style home — located in Lafayette Square at 21 Madison Place NW, directly across from the Treasury and the White House — had originally been built by Benjamin Ogle Tayloe in 1828. In 1885, the home was valued at $60,000, and the furnishings another $5,000 — which was an enormous sum of money in those days. The Little Cream White House had a rare cream-colored brick exterior, not to mention an opulent interior with five entertaining parlors, silk mohair carpeting in the VP’s room, huge mahogany desks, chandeliers, a booming grandfather clock, Neopolitan silk curtains, Persian throw rugs, and velour sofa cushions. On any given night, was filled with wall-to-wall booze, gambling, cigars, and political powerhouses. Unlike many of his predecessors, Hobart found it a great honor to serve as Vice President.

These frequent garrulous social gatherings forged a solid bond between the President and Vice President and Hobart was often called “The President’s assistant.” The two had a reputation for getting things done during the wee hours of the morning and during informal meetings. During holidays, the Hobarts and the McKinleys vacationed together and at Bluff Point on Lake Champlain. Whenever McKinley ran into financial trouble, he turned to his shrewd “business advisor” Hobart, who — on more than one occasion — invested for the president.

So where is the house today, you ask? It was almost demolished in the sixties to make room for cookie cutter office buildings, but Jacqueline Kennedy made it her main mission to save the historic homes of Lafayette Square, urging developers to work in the existing frames with their contemporary design. Today, the Little Cream White House remains as part of the National Courts building complex.

Sidebar: I’d argue whether Ida actually had epilepsy, although she definitely was sickly, and given I’m no doctor, I’d rather leave the matter open than give a specific diagnosis.

Presidential Childrens’ Books

I was at the library last week and happened to see this book, Franklin and Winston, and couldn’t resist picking it up. I have to say it is nicely written and rather cute. It focuses on the visit of Churchill to the US in December of 1941 (using Christmas to highlight this). I was talking to another lady later who said she usually started with a children’s’ book to see if she wanted to learn more on a topic! Makes sense in a way – condensed, easy to read, information that can interest you quickly. I was thinking, though, there is also a lot of children’s’ literature out there that only reinforces stereotypes, not what we want. Any titles to share?

I did go on to research more on the topic of the book (checking them out – they were surprisingly accurate here!). I found this great site that is a teacher’s resource on this visit:
A close friendship and the excellent working relations that developed between U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill were crucial in the establishment of a unified effort to deal with the Axis powers. This working relationship was highlighted by many joint appearances and agreements that not only addressed the immediate needs of the Allies but also the planning for a successful peace following victory.

In late December 1941, shortly after entry of the United States into World War II, Churchill met in Washington, D.C., with Roosevelt in what became known as the First Washington Conference, code name “Arcadia.” The conference placed first priority on the Atlantic theater and the defeat of Germany and Italy. On December 24, 1941, Roosevelt and Churchill delivered Christmas greetings to the nation and the world from the South Portico of the White House during the lighting of the National Community Christmas Tree. FDR closed his short message with the following passage, “And so I am asking my associate, [and] my old and good friend, to say a word to the people of America, old and young, tonight, — Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of Great Britain.” These words clearly describe the relationship that these two leaders of the “Free World” had struck.

There is a cute scene in the book about Churchill being caught in the tub and the men running back and forth like this. So I checked this out – turns out TV had also used it and someone else did the work for me! It is true!
It’s an amusing vignette, but did this nude encounter between Churchill and FDR really happen? The British ambassador recently hosted a screening of Into the Storm, followed by a panel discussion, where Newsweek editor and Churchill/FDR biographer Jon Meacham was asked this question. “Yes!” Meacham replied, according to the Washington Post, “I actually interviewed the man who took the dictation!” He added: “For me, in a dork way, it was very glamorous.”

That man was Patrick Kinna, Churchill’s wartime dictationist, who died at age 95 in March, and was the last surviving witness to the naked incident, which some of his obituaries dutifully noted. As Meacham described in his Franklin and Winston, during Churchill’s Christmastime 1941 visit to Washington, following Pearl Harbor, the Prime Minister was fresh from his twice a day bath and pacing about “completely starkers” in his White House bedroom, according to Kinna. The loyal stenographer, who previously had served the Duke of Windsor, was taking dictation from his restless nude chieftain. Churchill replied “come in,” after a knock at the door, and FDR rolled forward, surprised to see the Englishman disrobed. The President tried to leave, but the Prime Minister stopped him, declaring, “You see, Mr. President, I have nothing to hide from you.”

"Awful" Presidential Books

I enjoy the blog “Awful Library Books.” This actually isn’t about books being awful or anything, but rather how libraries need to weed because books do eventually become obsolete and given we don’t have unlimited storage space, we have to change books as we buy newer, more useful books. I can go on for days (I have a library science degree….), but suffice it say, weeding is GOOD. So the books (well most of them!) weren’t “awful” when purchased, but now, years later, don’t belong on a public library shelf anymore (they might belong somewhere else, like an archive, but not a public library). Anyway, I thought I’d share some of the presidential weeders (again, not for a public library…most of these would be a good historical perspective piece for an archives) for some Friday fun.

Jimmy Who
This book discusses the candiancy of Jimmy Carter, published, you guessed it, in 1976. Obviously a great historical piece for a student of Carter’s presidency, but for a student researching Carter, utterly useless as this doesn’t even yet know Carter was president!

Hillary Rodham Clinton
This book, at first glance, seems like a great choice as Hillary Clinton is obviously still a powerful political force. But this book was published in 1997, when she was still First Lady. Obviously, she has accomplished much more since then and any student writing a paper on her would miss all this. They all know her as Secretary of State or possibly also as a Senator (and a possible President)!

Why President Nixon Should Be Impeached
Again, like the Carter book, a great choice for an archives, but useless sitting on a public library shelf as Nixon has resigned and is now even deceased! This book was published before I was born…that says it all when talking about politics and a public library, in my opinion!

Tipper Gore
This was written in 1993…obviously a student in high school today probably wouldn’t even know who Tipper Gore was. If you click on this link, check out the entire list of “leading ladies” they covered….some are dead (Princess Diana), many have changed (Hillary Clinton again!) and some would mean nothing to a high schooler today (Raisa Gorbachev…who is actually also dead, I had to look).

The Changing Vice Presidency
This was written in 1981, so the vice presidency has done some changing since then as well! In addition, let’s face it…for an academic library this would have been a good buy, might even be still useful to have (as well we have some new VPs, the VP itself hasn’t shifted that much), but why a public library ever bought this one……just my opinion……

So why did I do this? Well, because they are funny to consider what might still be sitting on YOUR public’s library shelves (go look, then go complain and ask them to weed….) and because I wanted to rant on the necessity of weeding. Obviously, from a historical perspective, these are good books that reflect when they were written. But we want our students well educated on our presidents…and that means current books!

Presidential Assassinations and Assassination Attempts

Over the years, four presidents have died from assassination while another six presidential assassinations have been attempted. The first assassination attempt occurred on January 30, 1835 when Richard Lawrence tried to shoot Andrew Jackson. Ironically, both of his guns misfired. He was found not guilty of the crime by reason of assassination. Read about this and the other presidential assassinations and assassination attempts.

Revolutionary Con(tra)ceptions: Evangelicals, Family Matters, and Presidential Politics

by Carol Faulkner

Forreaders of Religion in American History, Saturday’s online New York Times juxtaposes several interesting articles. The firstis a Room-for-Debate exchange on Newt Gingrich’s response to his ex-wife’s allegationthat he asked for an open marriage (“False!”), which received resoundingapproval from a South Carolina audience this week. The second is a column by Mark Oppenheimer on how evangelical voters celebrate the large families of theRepublican presidential candidates.  Thethird is an opinion piece on Gingrich’s marital revelations by Gail Collins.Collins and the other NYT writers all puzzle over the evangelical voters’tolerance of hypocrisy and contradiction. These articles also present a unifiedportrait of the conservative evangelical vision of marriage and the family.

Gail Collins is funny and on-target, as always, writing:

South Carolina is probably notthe ideal state in which to be accused of breaking the matrimonial bonds, thensmashing them and jumping up and down on them until they’re just a pile ofmarital powdery dust. But Newt has framed his sexual history — the parts heisn’t totally denying — in terms of a redemption story. (“I’ve had to go to Godfor forgiveness.”) Everybody likes a story of the fallen man who rejects hiswicked ways and starts a new life. Remember how well George W. Bush did withthe one about renouncing alcohol on his 40th birthday? There is, however, a lotof difference between giving up drinking on the eve of middle age and giving upadultery at about the time you’re qualifying for Social Security. Cynics mightsuggest that Newt didn’t so much reform as poop out.

In Mark Oppenheimer’s article,Newt Gingrich’s other weakness might be his two children (his current opponentshave 5-7 children each). According to Oppenheimer, for most of thetwentieth-century, evangelicals viewed large families as undesirable: a sign ofCatholicism, poverty, and/or backwardness. In more recent years, however, someevangelicals have embraced large families as God’s will.  An essential part of this worldview is thesubmission of women. Though not all (or even most) evangelicals share this viewof contraception, Oppenheimer writes:

Today, however, even thoseevangelical Protestants who use contraception — the vast majority, it wouldseem — have developed a cultural respect, in some cases a reverence, for thosewho do not.

Oppenheimerrefers to a book by Allan Carlson called Godly Seed: American Evangelicals Confront Birth Control, 1873-1973,which, according to Oppenheimer, argues that prior to 1920 American Protestantsrejected the use of contraception as sinful and a violation of God’s order tobe fruitful and multiply. After 1920, Carlson suggests, evangelicals fell awayfrom this belief and quickly endorsed the use of contraception.

A briefglance at the book’s description indicates that Carlson is talking about evangelicalleadership rather than lay people, but even so, his argument is somewhat puzzlingfor anyone familiar with the history of American fertility and birth control.American fertility rates began declining as early as 1760, and, in thewell-known demographic transition, dropped steadily over the course of the 19thcentury. By 1900, American families had an average of 3.5 children. SusanKlepp’s excellent Revolutionary Conceptions shows why and how this decline happened (see my review of Klepp’s book here). What is veryclear is that it could not have happened without the enthusiastic participationof Protestants, including evangelicals.  Inaddition, as historian Andrea Tone has demonstrated, even at the height of theComstock laws, Americans—men and women, Protestant and Catholic—purchased andused contraception.Today, the numbers for contraceptive use are overwhelming: 99% of Americanwomen, and 98% of Catholic women (see http://www.huffingtonpost.com/cecile-richards/birth-control-coverage-a_b_1220668.html). 

 Today’s evangelicals who condemn contraceptive use are bucking three centuriesof family limitation.
Devices and Desires - Andrea ToneTheRoom-for-Debate exchange asks: If more people considered suchopenness an option, would marriage become a stronger institution — lesssusceptible to cheating and divorce, and more attractive than unmarriedcohabitation?

The writer DanSavage points out that Americans, including South Carolina evangelicals, acceptadultery as a sad fact of marriage: Thelesson in Gingrich’s angry denial and the applause that greeted it: An honestopen relationship is more scandalous, and more politically damaging, than adishonest adulterous relationship.

W. Bradford Wilcox of the NationalMarriage Project believes that tolerance for adultery is bad for women andchildren. Christopher Ryan and Cacilda Jethá hope that greater tolerance fordifferent types of relationships will emerge, asking, How many outspoken defenders of “traditional marriage” (whatever thatis) must be exposed as adulterers before voters just roll their eyes at thosetwo words? They also inform readers that “esposas,” the Spanish word forwives, also translates as “handcuffs.” Nice.

AsCollins suggests, South Carolina Republicans may endorse Gingrich’s tale ofmarital redemption. In doing so, they are celebrating a gendered vision ofmarriage and the family in which the man reigns supreme.  It may be “traditional” in that this view ofmarriage harkens back to the cultural ideals of the nineteenth century. Whilethe ideal wife was submissive and sexually chaste, not to mention economically,politically, and legally dependent on her husband, the husband had fewrestrictions on his sexual behavior (in or outside the marriage).  These conservatives might consider, however,that even in nineteenth-century Christian marriages, wives controlled theirfertility.

Presidential Assassinations and Assassination Attempts

Since the founding of the United States, four Presidents have been assassinated while in office. An additional six presidents were subject to assassination attempts. President Gerald Ford was actually subject to not just one but two assassination attempts, both by women. Learn more about each assassination and attempt on President of the United States.

Presidential Slave Chefs

This article from NPR talks about black cooks in the White House. The main focus of this article is Hercules, the Washington’s cook, and James Hemings, Jefferson’s, but it also mentions others, like Lyndon Johnson’s. I’m going to share the part on Hercules here, but you can find the rest at the link above:
Hercules, Washington’s slave chef, may have been trained by Martha Washington. It was Martha who brought slaves into Washington’s home when the two married. Martha was known for her table and for her “Great Cake” (40 eggs, four pounds of butter, four pounds of sugar, five pounds of flour, five pounds of fruit, a half-pint of wine and some fresh brandy).

“A lot of it was touch and go in those kitchens,” Seale says. “Just imagine putting a cake in a pot with a bigger pot around it with coals in it and knowing when to take it out. Of course, there were no thermometers; the old cooks had to know that. They had to have an eye for that.”

Martha Washington’s grandson, George Washington Parke Custis, remembered Hercules as “highly accomplished and proficient in the culinary arts as could be found in the United States.” Seale called him “the commander of the kitchen. He did everything, all the souffles, almond pudding, trifles, fricassee chicken, kidney, etc.”

Hercules had eight assistants — stewards, butlers, undercooks, waiters. He cooked in a huge fireplace — hearth cooking. The fireplace was full of a series of iron pots, hooks and cranes to lift and move the kettles. The job was long and hard, especially in the hot summer. The cooks and kitchen crew had to build the fire, burn it down, gauge the temperature by hand and gather fuel to keep the long-burning fires fed.

Hercules is described as being immaculate and impeccable. Harris, the historian, says he was noted for being a “dandy.” He walked through the streets of Philadelphia in a velvet waistcoat and a gold-handled cane. He probably got the money to buy his clothes by selling leftovers and kitchen waste, a privilege sometimes given those in special positions.

Hercules was well known around town and people would follow him as he walked through the market.

“Philadelphia had one of the largest open-air markets in the world,” says William Woys Weaver, a food historian and author. “The boats came in from Cuba three days a week, so there were bananas and pineapples, and if you had the money, you could get practically anything you wanted. George Washington loved an apple that came in the fall; it’s known as Washington’s favorite. Big yellow apple, it’s now unfortunately extinct. He would send his people out in the market and buy every apple out there. And the other Philadelphians in their diaries and letters grumbled about this president who’s hoarding these wonderful dessert apples.”

When Washington was getting ready to leave Philadelphia to return to Mt. Vernon, Hercules escaped. Washington sent out search parties and offered rewards. Hercules was never found.

Harris says, “A French visitor to Mt. Vernon asked one of Hercules’ daughters how she felt about her father running away. She replied, ‘I miss my father, but I know that he is free and so I am happy for him.’”

A Century of Presidential First Pitches

Presidential Assassination Attempts

Four U.S. Presidents died from assassination while in office and another six were subject to assassination attempts. Only one, Gerald Ford, was subject to not just one but two assassination …

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Presidential Assassination Attempts

Four U.S. Presidents died from assassination while in office and another six were subject to assassination attempts. Only one, Gerald Ford, was subject to not just one but two assassination…

Presidential Election Law

Found a nice site on Presidential Elections and the law. It is Jurist – Presidential Election Law. It provides statutes, cases, news and information about the laws regarding political broadcasting, campaign finance, voter registration and presidential debates. Includes Florida Recount 2000 section.  The site notes that it, “presents this Guide as a non-partisan educational resource for voters, citizens, and observers of the US electoral process.”

Although it hasn’t been updated since 200, it still has lots of good information.

Presidential Teeth

Dentists were on my mind today (not because of anything fun I assure you), so I looked up the dental history of the presidents.

This picture of Woodrow Wilson shows his bad teeth. According to the site, this could have contributed to his stroke.

Washington’s false teeth are well documented, but Adams refused them:

When Adams lost his teeth, he refused to wear false ones. As a result, he had a lisp when speaking. In later years Adams had trouble speaking. After encountering a fellow senior citizen in 1811, Adams wrote: “He is above 80. I cannot speak, and he cannot hear. Yet we converse”.

The other bit that amused me was this on Lincoln:
A dentist broke off part of Lincoln’s jaw bone while pulling a tooth — without anesthesia [2c]. The extraction may have taken place in Louisville, KY in Sept. 1841.

It has been said that Lincoln was afraid of dentists (see episode above for a good reason why he might have been). In 1862 Lincoln developed a severe toothache and consulted Dr. G. S. Wolf, who had an office near the White House. As Wolf prepared to pull the tooth, Lincoln asked him to wait. Lincoln “took a container of chloroform from his pocket, inhaled it deeply, and sleepily gave the signal for the dentist to proceed”.

George W Bush released dental records that you can check out online as well from 1973.