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American City & Country Life (1800-1860)

AP US History Study Terms: American Social Landscape, country life, Shaker communities, Joseph Smith, Book of Mormon, Robert Owen’s experiment, Brook Farm, George Ripley, Henry David Thoreau, James Fenimore Cooper, Herman Melville, American Renaissance, city life, Horace Mann, “If Not an Aristocracy”, Moses Yale Beach, immigrant disenchantment, Native American resistance and removal, President Andrew Jackson, Removal Act of 1830, Trail of Tears, Osceola, free people of color, Negro Convention, Black Nationalism

I.  What was the American Social Landscape?

The American pple and communities were very diverse.  The market economy, immigration, and the growth of cities had altered the way pple lived and worked.  Inequality was everywhere.  Cities were the home to the very rich and on the other spectrum the very poor.  A middle class formed form the market economy.  Many women became teachers and men businessmen or professionals.  Working-class women wanted to escape poverty and gain respect.  Many found comfort in religion.  Europeans were drawn to the US by the promise of jobs and tolerance.  Indians were forced off their tradition lands and were uprooted by the US govt.

II.  What was country life like?

The farm village, w/its churches, post office, general store, and tavern was the center of rural life.  Some turned to rural utopian experiments in an effort to find an antidote to the market economy and the untamed growth of large urban communities and an opportunity to restore tradition and social cohesion. Shakers, Mormons, and members of Brook Farm’s were all apart of different utopian experiments. Utopians sought to begin anew in their own colonies.

    1. How did rural life change?
    1. W settlements became sources rather than destinations of migrants
      1. Sense of community
    1. Govt policy fostered farm life
    1. Farming was associated w/virtue, productivity, & independence
    1. What were the farm communities like?
    1. Farm villageàchurch, postoffice, general store, tavern-center life
    2. Barn-raising generally brought people together (making barns)
    3. Men & wome had active, social lives
      1. Men met stores, markets, taverns,àhunted/fished together
      1. Womenàafter-church dinners, prayer & Bible-study groups, sewing & corn-husking bees, & quilting parties
    1. Changes–technology/market
      1. Rural utopian experiments-to restore tradition & social cohesion
    1. Who were the shakers?
    1. Believed that the end of the world was near & that sin entered the world through sexual intercourse
    2. Considered existing churches too worldly & viewed the Shaker community as the instrument of salvation
    3. Shaker communities emphasized agriculture & handcrafts
    4. Shaker furniture became famous for its simplicity, excellent construction, and beauty of design
    5. Abolished individual families; each colony was one large family
    1. What was the Mormon community of Saints?
    1. Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints, known as Mormons
    2. Joseph Smith–Book of Mormon & organized a church-W NY-1830
    3. People objected most to the Mormon belief in continuous revelation & the practice of allowing men to have several wives at once
    4. Found a home in the Great Salt Lake valley
      1. They achieved religious freedom and political self=govt
    1. Mormon church offered success & community in this world & salvation in the next to anyone who would join
    2. Distributed agricultural land according to family size
      1. Extensive irrigation system
    1. What was Robert Owen’s experiment?
    1. According to his plan, its 900 members were to exchange their labor for goods at a communal stores
    1. Handicrafts flourished at New Harmony-textile mill failed–ended
    1. What was Brook Farm?
    1. Inspired by transcendentalism (the belief that the physical world is secondary to the spiritual realm, which human beings can know by ignoring custom & experience and relying instead on intuition) Brook Farm’s members rejected materialism in favor of rural communalism, combining spirituality, manual labor, intellectual life, and play
    2. Founded by George Ripley
    3. Intellectual achievements
      1. Rigid regimentation replaced individualism
    1. During these yrs Hawthorne, Emerson, and Margaret Fuller joined Henry David Thoreau, James Fenimore Cooper, Herman Melveille create the American Renaissance

III.  What was city life like?

The transportation revolution and the expansion of commerce and manufacturing enabled the urban population to grow. New York grew dramatically, but as its borders grew sanitation became worse and worse and New York didn’t have the money to support all of its people. Mass established a minimum school term of 6 months, formalized the training of teachers, and emphasized secular subjects and applied skills rather than religious training. Horace Mann was an evangelist for public education and school reform. In rural society, both leisure activities and work often took place at home. In cities leisure took place in streets, theaters, sports fields constituted a social sphere where people could come together away from home. Sports increasingly involved city dwellers as spectators. Much political, economic, social, and ethnic diversity existed within the cities, and these differences often led to urban riots.

    1. What were cities like?
    1. Transportation Rev & the expansion of commerce & manufacturing enabled the urban pop to grow
    1. Nation’s pop increased during this period from 5 million to 31 million
    2. Cities became great metropolitan centers
      1. Largest cities of the N belonged to a nationwide urban network linked by canals, roads, & railroads
    1. What was New York City like?
    1. Population in NYC grew dramatically
      1. Brooklyn considered a different city
    1. Very unsanitized
    1. Increased its borders–expansion rapid
    2. NYC lacked adequate taxing power to provide services for all
      1. Spread of new services & basic sanitation depended on residents’ ability to pay
      1. Charter private companies to sell basic services
      2. Private sector failed to supply the water the cities needed
      3. Private firms lacked $ to build adequate systems-laid pipe only in commercial/well-to-do residential areas, ignore the poor
    1. Who was Horace Mann and what did he have to do w/public schools?
    1. By 1860 every state offered some public edu
    2. MAàexpansion of schools under Horace Mann, Sec of the State board of edu from 1837-48
    3. MA est a minchool term of 6 months, train the teachers,&  emphasized secular subjects & applied skills-no religious training
      1. School teachingàwoman’s profession
    1. Horace Mannàan evangelist for public edu & school reform
      1. Public schools-take in kids of strangers-give them shared values
    1. Students studied geography, Am history, arithmetic, & science
    2. Caths, immigrants, blacks, & working-class pple sought to have local control over their own schools
      1. State legislatures est secular statewide standards under Prot est secular statewide standards under Prot educators
    1. What did the people do for leisure?
    1. Rural societyàleisure/work took place at home
    1. Cities–streets, theaters, sports fieldsàsocial sphere where pple could come together away from home
    2. As pop became more diverse, leisure associations reflected ethnic, racial, & class divisions
      1. Churches continued to remain centers for leisure
    1. Americans read more–books (fiction, autobiographies, religious tracts) , newspapers, magazines
    2. Theateràcentral institution-provided a social sphere
    1. Why were sports so popular?
    1. Sports increasingly involved city dwellers as spectators
    2. Horseracing, boxing, walking races, & baseball games
      1. Adopted sports rules
    1. What was city culture like?
    1. Middle & upper-class NYers who felt alienated in the city of their birth founded exclusive clubs
      1. Divisions seemed to occur naturally on city streets
    1. Cities offered diversity and anonymity
      1. Pple interested in same-sex liaisons-publicly ostracized, could find & live together in urban boarding houses
    1. Working pple spent their lives outdoors; worked in the streets as laborers, shopped in open markets, & paraded on occasions
    1. What were urban riots like?
    1. Economic, political, social, & ethnic conflict erupted on city streets
    1. As public disorder spread, Boston hired uniformed policemen in 1837 to supplement its part-time watchmen and constables, & NY in 1845 est an entirely uniformed force
    2. Local laws against vagrancy & disturbing the peace often were used against free blacks & immigrants

IV.  What were the extremes of wealth?

Among those who traced the rise of a new aristocracy based on wealth and power was Moses Yale Beach.  By 1860 the top 5% of American families owned more than half of the nation’s wealth, and the top 10% owned more than 70%. Many feared hard times and resented the competition of immigrant and slave labor. Within the cities existed the very poor, the very rich, and the middle-class.

    1. “If Not an Aristocracy” than what?
    1. Traced the rise of a new aristocracy based on wealth and power-Moses Yale Beach
      1. Beach reported more than a thousand New Yorkers worth $100,000, among them 28 millionaires
    1. Wealth throughout the USàconcentrated in the hands of an elite
    1. By 1860 the top 5% of American families owned more than half of the nation’s wealth, & the top 10% owned more than 70%
    1. What was urban policy like?
    1. Many feared hard times-resented immigrant & slave competition
    2. Women feared having to raise a family w/o a spouse
    3. Many families took in lodgers to help pay the rent
    4. NY/large cities harbored boys w/o families who earned their living on the streets by petty thievery
    1. What was the urban elite like?
    1. NY elite lived in mansions attended by a corps off servants
    2. Summer-country estates, ocean resorts, mineral spas, and grand tours of Europe offered relief from the strenuous winter and spring social seasons and escape from the heat and smell of the city
    3. Much of this new wealth was inherited
    1. What was the middle class like?
    1. Growth & specialization of trade increased the middle class
    2. Men-businessmen/professionals-Women homemakers/volunteers
    3. Houses were large, often having from four to six rooms

V.  What was the role of women and families?  What was the domestic ideal?

Men worked for wages outside the home. Middle-class Americans idealized the family as a moral institution characterized by selflessness and cooperation. Small families were viewed as increasingly desirable in an economy in which the family was a unit of consumption rather than production. Families were limited. Urban life offered a place in the world for single men and women.

    1. How were families supported?
    1. Men worked for wages outside the home
    1. Rural sons worked on their family farms, worked for hire on other people’s farms, or sought wage work in towns
    2. NE daughters left farms to work in textile mills
      1. Womenàteachers
    1. Working-class women support themselves and their families
    2. Leaving their parental homes early-earned wages
      1. Sold their domestic skills for wages outside own households
      1. Most women’s work continued to be unpaid labor in the home
    1. Middle-class Americans idealized the family as a moral institution characterized by selflessness and cooperation
    1. Mom role was to strengthen the nation by rearing her kids in a spiritual & virtuous environment unlike the world outside the home
    2. Domestic ideal restricted the range of paying jobs available to middle-class women
    3. Men paid more than women for the same job
    1. What did the family size decline?
    1. Family size shrank
    2. Small familiesàdesirable in an economy in which the family was a unit of consumption rather than production
    3. Children in smaller families would have greater opportunities
    4. Too many births–harmful affects on the mother
    1. How were families limited?
    1. Avg age at marriage rose-shortened period of potential childbearing
    2. Women bore their last child at a younger age
    3. Many couples used traditional forms of birth control
      1. Abortion was available
    1. Smaller families and fewer births changed women’s lives
      1. More time w/ their children
    1. What was it like to be a single man or woman?
    1. Urban life always offered a place for men outside families
    1. Independent white women were taking advg of new opportunities offered by the market economy and urban expansion

VI.  What were the immigrants lives like in America?

Famine and religious and political oppression in Europe propelled millions of people across the Atlantic. They were drawn to the US by the promise of jobs and tolerance. Although conditions usually better than in their native lands, most found the going rough.  In the process of adapting, immigrants changed the profile of the American people: Americans differed from each other more and shared fewer traditions and experiences. Competition and diversity in turn bred intolerance. Native Americans, free African-Americans, and Hispanics were made to feel like aliens in their own land.

    1. What was the promotion of immigration?
    1. Both private firms & govts recruited European immigrants
      1. Immigrants were important to businesses
    1. Success in America stimulated further emigration
    1. Avg trans-Atlantic crossing took 6 weeks
    2. Authorized transportation companies maintained offices in the large rotunda and assisted arrivals w/their travel plans
    3. Most immigrants gravitated toward cities
      1. Some immigrants settled in rural areas
    B. What is immigrant disenchantment?
    1. Not all immigrants found success in the US
    1. What was the role of Irish Immigrants (most of the immigrants were Irish)?
    1. New Irish immigrants differed greatly from those who had left Ireland to settle in the American colonies
    2. 19thcentury Irish immigrants to America were mostly Roman Cath
    3. Most were young, female, and from rural counties
    4. Poverty in Ireland–in American cities found work
    1. Who were the anti-Catholics?
    1. Native-born who embraced anti-Catholicism were motivated largely by anxiety
      1. Feared the Roman Catholic Church, unskilled Irish workers, and the urban slums inhabited by the Irish
    1. Blamed every problem on immigrant Irish Catholics
    2. Friction increased as Irish-Am men fought back by entering politics.
    1. What was the role of the German Immigrants?
    1. 1854-Germans replaced Irish as the largest group of new arrivals
    2. German states–hardships/poverty
    3. Their tendency to migrate as families and groups helped them maintain German culture and institutions
    4. Native-born Americans accepted German immigrants more readily than they accepted the Irish, stereotyping Germans as hard working, self-reliant, and intelligent
    1. What was the role of the Hispanics?
    1. Some Hispanic groups became immigrants to the US w/o moving
      1. States that were Mexican became American
      1. Commerce eclipsed their agricultural and ranching economy
    1. Although many Tejanos had fought for TX’s independence, arriving Anglo settlers tended to treat them as inferiors
      1. Tejanos retained their culture
    1. In CA (unlike TX, NM, AZ) Hispanic culture as well as political power quickly gave way to American and European culture

VII.  What was the Native American resistance and removal?

Like the colonial powers in N America, the US govt treated Native Americans as sovereign nations, until Congress ended the practice in 1871. In its relations with Indian leaders, the govt follower international protocol. Indian delegations to Washington were received with the appropriated pomp and ceremony. Native American and US leaders exchanged presents as tokens of friendship, and commemorative flags and silver medals with presidents’ likenesses became prized possessions among Indian chiefs. Agreements b/t a given Indian nation and the US were signed, sealed, and ratified like any other international pact. In practice, however, Native American sovereignty was a fiction. Protocol appeared to signify mutual respect and independence, but treaty negotiations exposed the sham. Treaty making was essentially a tactic that the American govt used to acquire Indian land. Instead of bargains struck by two equal nations, treaties often were agreements imposed by the victor on the vanquished.

    1. What was the history behind this?
    1. Congress dealt w/the Indians
      1. Result-removal of the great NA nations to lands W of the Miss
      2. Indian population was decreasing
    1. US gave NA sovereignty in word and writing but not in action
    1. War of 1812 snuffed out whatever realistic hopes eastern Indian leaders had of resisting American expansion by warfare
    1. Who were the Shawnees?
    1. After giving up 17 million acres in Ohio in the 1795 Treaty of Greenville, the Shawnees scattered to Indiana & E Missouri
    2. After the War of 1812, Prophet’s Indiana group withdrew to Canada under British protection
    3. In 1822 other Shawnees sought Mexican protection & moved from Missouri to present-day eastern TX
    4. Shawnees preserved their language culture
    1. What was the Federal Indian policy?
    1. Fed Indian agency system-monopolized trade with NA & paid out the rations, supplies, &annuities they received in exchange for abandoning their land, made Indians dependent on govt payments
    2. Dependency made them pliant in treaty negotiations & furthered assimilation by bringing them into the market system
    3. In 1819, in response to missionary lobbying, Congress appropriated $10,000 annually for civilization of the tribes adjoining the frontier settlements
      1. Prot missionaries administered the civilizing fund & est mission schools
    1. 1820s-neither economic dependency, edu, nor Christianity could persuade NAs to cede enough land to satisfy the expansionists
    1. What was the Indian removal to the West?
    1. 1824, Pres Monroe suggested that all Indians be moved beyond the Miss River
    2. Believed force would be unnecessary–promise of a home free from white encroachment would be sufficient to win Indian acceptance
    3. Indians rejected it
      1. They had reached the limits of their tolerance–they wished to remain on what was left of their ancestral land
    1. Cherokees & Creeks lived in NW Georgia-1820s the state accused the fed govt of not fulfilling its 1802 promise to remove the Indians in return for the state’s renunciation of this claim to western land
    2. For Creeks-outcome a devastating blow-lost their land & their traditional forms of social & political organization
    1. What happened to the Cherokees?
    1. B/w 1819-29 the Cherokees became economically self-sufficient & politically self-governing
    2. Cherokees-think of themselvesànation, not a collection of villages
    3. B/w 1820-23 the Cherokees created a formal govt w/a bicameral legislature, a court system, & a salaried bureaucracy
    4. 1827 adopted a written constitution , modeled after that of the US
    5. Cherokees assimilated American cultural patterns
    6. Failed to win respect or acceptance from southerners
    1. What happened during the Cherokee Nation versus Georgia case?
    1. During the Cherokee Nation vs Georgia case (1831), Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that under the federal Constitution an Indian tribe was neither a foreign nation nor a state & therefore had no standing in fed courts
    2. Nonetheless they had a right to their lands; they could lose title only by voluntarily giving it up
    3. Pres Jackson, whose reputation had been built as an Indian fighter, refused to interfere because the case involved a state action
    4. Removal Act of 1830-Congress provided Jackson w/funds he needed to negotiate new treaties & resettle the resistant tribes west of the Mississippi
    1. What was the Trial of Tears?
    1. Choctaws were the first to go
    2. Creeks in Alabama resisted removal until 1836, when the army pushed them westward
    3. 1837, the Chickasaws followed
    4. Having fought removal in the courts, the Cherokees were divided
      1. About 20,000 Cherokees were evicted–nearly ¼ of them died
    1. When the forced march to the West ended, the Indians had traded about 100 million acres east of the Miss for 32 million acres west of the River plus $68 million
    2. No longer able to live off the land, many NAs became dependent on govt payments for survival
    3. Removal also brought new internal conflicts
    1. What was the Second Seminole War about?
    1. SE a small band of Seminoles successfully resisted removal & remained in FL
    2. Some Seminole leaders agreed in the 1832 Treaty of Payne’s Landing to relocate to the West within 3 yrs
      1. Others opposed the treaty, & some prob did not know it existed
    1. When fed troops were sent to impose removal in 1835, Osceola waged a fierce guerrilla war against them
      1. Osceola captured & replaced by Chief Coacoochee & others
      1. 1842 the American army abandoned the removal effort
    1. What happened during the Indian removal in the West?
    1. NAs in the West found themselves pressured to cede land
    2. Two great Indian reservoirs–one northern one southern
      1. In 1853-4, the fed govt took back most of the northern reservation lands
    1. Devastation of NAs cultures

VIII.  What was life like for the free people of color?

Throughout the North white social custom excluded or segregated free people of color. Free people of color faced severe legal and social barriers in the southern slave states. Southern states adopted elaborate black codes to curtail the activities and opportunities of African-Americans, who provided most of the South’s skilled labor. Free people of color forged cohesive communities and created autonomous institutions within them. Many blacks were swept up in a wave of Black Nationalism that stressed racial solidarity, self-help, and a growing interest in Africa.

    1. How were African-Americans excluded and segregated?
    1. Throughout the North white social custom excluded or segregated free people of color
    1. African-Americans encountered discrimination in hiring everywhere
    2. Segregation in institutions
    1. What was it like for southern free blacks?
    1. Free pple of color faced severe legal and social barriers in the southern slave states
    2. Fearing free blacks, southern states restricted their presence
    3. Nearly every southern state prohibited the freeing of slaves w/o legislative or court approval
    4. S states adopted elaborate black codes to curtail the activities and opportunities of blacks, who provided most of the South’s ski
    5. lled labor
    6. Free black population rose
    1. What were the African-American communities like?
    1. Free pple of color forged cohesive communities and created autonomous institutions within them
    2. Churches became the center of community life, & pastors became political leaders
    3. Church buildings functioned as town halls, and they housed schools, political forums and conventions, protest meetings, and benevolent and self-help associations as well as prayer meetings.
    4. A network of voluntary associations became the hallmark of their community
    5. In the majority of states where free blacks were excluded form the ballot, they formed protest organizations to fight for equal rights
    6. Under the leadership of the small black middle class, the Negro Convention most served as a forum to attack slavery and agitate for equal rights
    1. What was Black Nationalism?
    1. Many blacks were swept up in a wave of black nationalism that stressed racial solidarity, self-help, and a growing interest in Africa
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