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American Colonial Society (1600s-1700s), Part 1

AP History Study Terms: American colonial society, English civil war, Stuart Restoration, New Netherland become New York, James duke of York, Duke’s Laws, founded New Jersey, Sir George Carteret, John Lord Berkeley, Dutch New Yorkers, Society of Friends, West Jersey, East Jersey, Quaker, William Penn,  Indian Policy, Tuscaroras, Shawnees, Miamis migrated, Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, John Locke, Albemarle, North American slave trade, Atlantic Creoles, Royal African Company, Middle Passage

I.  How did American society take shape?

The east coast of North America was in English control.  Mainly there were two isolated populations:  New England and Chesapeake.  Economies were based on fur trade and trade with the mother country (England).  Political structures were reorganized to be uniformed.  The Anglo-Americans set up an autonomous local government.  Slavery also emerged in North America as a source of labor.  The Spanish controlled New Mexico, Florida and as far as California.  The French dominated the Mississippi river and the Great Lakes region.  They were both dependent on the Indian’s labor and help.

II.  How did the English civil war & the Stuart Restoration effect the American colonies?

During the civil war and Interregnum, the Puritans controlled the English government so migration to New England mostly stopped.  New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, North and South Carolina all came under English control.  They were all proprietorships and were created by the restored Stuart monarchy.

  1. How in the world did New Netherland become New York?
    1. James, duke of York (Charles’s younger brother) in 1664 was given by Charles II the region b/tw CT & Delaware River, Hudson valley & Long Island
      1. Acted as though the Dutch colony did not exist
    2. Organized an invasion fleet
      1. New Netherland did not resist
      2. Surrendered completely in 1674
    3. New York’s population diversity
      1. Some Puritans, Native Americans, Germans, Walloons, Scandinavians, Africans
      2. Dutch W India Company

1)     Had imported the slaves for Chesapeake

2)     Constituted 1/5 of New York population

  1. Establishing authority
    1. Duke’s Laws (legal code) 1665-1st only applied to English on Long Island-then was extended
    2. Dutch form of local govt were maintained, Dutch land titles confirmed, Dutch residents allowed to maintain legal practices
    3. Religious toleration

1)     Each town decide which church to support w/it’s taxes

  1. Ruled by autocratic governor

1)     Not till 1683 was an legislative body elected

  1. Who founded New Jersey?
    1. Duke of York regranted the land b/w Hudson & Delaware Rivers-East and West Jersey
      1. To Sir George Carteret & John Lord Berkeley
    2. Attracted settlers with land grants, limited freedom of religion
      1. Quickly grew-Puritan New Englanders, Dutch New Yorkers, Barbados
    3. Berkeley & Carteret sell to Society of Friends (Quakers)
      1. West Jersey & portions of East Jersey-refuge from persecution in England
      2. Believed everyone could receive inner light, be saved & all equal in God’s sight
      3. “Public Friend”-spread God’s word-anyone could speak at a meeting
      4. Message of Radical egalitarianism
  2. Why was Pennsylvania a Quaker haven?
    1. Own colony in 1681-granted by Charles II to William Penn
    2. Saw colony as a haven for persecuted co-religionists
      1. Offered land to all, toleration of religions, guaranteed right to bail, trial by jury, pledged to establish a rep assembly
    3. Promotional tracts for PA
      1. Quaker migration like that of the Puritans
    4. Philadelphia-major city
      1. Drew merchants/artisans from everywhere
      2. Established trading connections
      3. Land was plentiful & fertile-exported flour
  3. What was William Penn’s Indian Policy?
    1. Attempted to treat Indians fairly
      1. Learned to speak language of Lenapes (Delaware)
      2. Est strict regulations for trade & forbade sale of alcohol to Indians
    2. Tuscaroras, Shawnees, Miamis migrated
    3. Scots-Irish, Palatine Germans, Swiss clashed w/Indians
  4. What was the importance of founding Carolina?
    1. Proprietary colony granted by Charles II 1663 from Virginia to Spanish Florida
    2. Strategic location
      1. Prevented Spaniards from pushing farther north
      2. Fertile land-had figs, olives, wines, silk
    3. “Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina”
      1. John Locke drafted it-governed by a hierarchy
      2. Developed 2 population centers-split in 1729 into 2 colonies
    4. Albemarle=North Carolina & settled by Virginia planters
      1. Tobacco, pitch, tar, timber
      2. No harbor-relied on Virginia’s ports
    5. Charleston, South Carolina-brought slaves from Barbados

III.  What was the North American slave trade and how did the Africans come to be enslaved?

The settlers had a need for labor and other Europeans had practice slavery.  The Spanish & Portuguese had imported Africans as laborers in the Mediterranean.  They brought this to New Spain and Brazil.  Europeans needed bound laborers so the act of buying slaves extended to North America.  In Chesapeake the plantation owners turned to Africans to do their work.

  1. Who were the Atlantic Creoles?
    1. People who participated in the new international system of trade & piracy
    2. Of mixed race-slave status was not defined wither free, indenture, or enslavement
  2. What was the system of enslaving Africans?
    1. Chesapeake imported enslaved Africans from sugar island then purchased them from Africa
    2. Enslaved population grew
      1. Colonies adopted codes to govern slaves
      2. Economics-indentures became free-slaves stayed
      3. Slave trade brought 10 million enslaved pple to the Americas from 1492-1770
  3. How did the slave trade affect West Africa?
    1. Affected the sex ration because planters preferred male slaves
      1. Increased women’s work & encouraged polygyny
    2. In Guinea-political & economic consequences
      1. Coastal rulers-middlemen-allowing est of permanent slave-trading posts in their territories & supplies slaves

1)     Controlled access to slaves and controlled inland pple’s access to European goods

  1. What was the impact of the slave trade on Europe?
    1. Expanding network of trade
      1. Sale/transport of slaves, exchange of commodities, need to fee/clothe slaves
      2. By 1720s-80% of English cotton textile exports traded in Africa or American colonies
    2. European economy shifted to Atlantic Ocean
      1. Commerce in slaves and products of slave labor
    3. Europe fought to control slave trade
      1. PortugueseàDutchàEnglish
      2. English control through Royal African Company

1)     Monopoly-trade w/sub-Saharan Africa

  1. What was the Middle Passage and how were the conditions?
    1. Middle section of triangular trade-traumatic & fatal sometimes
      1. 10-20% of Africans died en route
      2. Long, plagued by diseases
      3. European captors died at high rates from being exposed
    2. Account by Olaudah Equiano in 1756
    3. Cramped, unsanitary conditions, poor food
  2. How did slavery in Chesapeake benefit the Anglo-American society?
    1. By 1690-more African slaves than English indentured servants-by 1710 1/5 of population was of African decent
    2. Slaves expensive (twice as much) gap b/w rich and poor grew
      1. Rich were able to buy slaves whose efforts repaid them greatly
      2. Poor couldn’t afford slaves didn’t receive as much $ in return
    3. Demographic change
      1. Anglo-Americans in the Chesapeake adopted African modes of thought and use of time and nature of work

1)     Different from Puritans who didn’t believe in leisure time

  1. How were African-Americans in South Carolina beneficial to the colony?
    1. Africans composed ¼ of the population in South Carolina
    2. S Carolina learned that Africans had many skills of help
      1. Dugout canoes-new means of transportation
      2. Basketsàcontainers for food and drinks
      3. Africans killed Alligators-no more fear
      4. New cattle herding methods (S Carolinas product in early years)àVery prosperous for planters
    3. South Carolina had a climate just like that in West Africa
      1. More slaves survived in S Carolina than anywhere else
      2. African parents continued their customs-African names
      3. African women Guinea)àprimary traders in Charleston
  2. What were the major crops of South Carolina?
    1. Rice & Indigo-staple crops in S Carolina (successful b/c of slaves)
    2. English people didn’t know how to grow rice-Africa’s Rice Coast –Africans had spent their lives with that crop
    3. Indigo-2nd stable crop in S Carolina
      1. Blue dye for clothing (Eliza Lucas)
      2. Produced in high grounds-rice low-swampy areas

I.  What was slavery like in the North?

1.  After 1700 slavery was a necessity in the southern colonies

2.  Slaves weren’t transported to the North in such a large amount

a.  North had a labor-scarce economy

  1. Main reason for regional differences that developed b/w the North and South colonies

Go to Part 2.

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