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AP European History: Unit 14, Day 2 (Population Migration)

AP European History Study Terms: The Great Migration, European Migrants, Dwarf economy, Alex II, Pale of Settlement, Western Imperialism, Boers, Afrikaners, Age of Discovery, Battle of Omdurman, Kitchener

UNIT 14, DAY 2

I.  The Great Migration

A.     Led West’s impact on world in 19th century to be powerful

II.  The Pressure of Population

A.     Birthrates declined, death rates declined

1.      Due to better standard of living, medical knowledge

a.      Thus population doubled from 188 million in 1800 to 432 million in 1900

B.     B/w 1815-1932 60 million pple left Europe

1.      Went to areas of European settlement

a.      Americas, Australia, New Zealand, Siberia

2.      N. America from 6-81 million from immigration/high fertility rates

3.      European origin went to about 38% of world’s total eve of WW1

4.      Overpopulation led to emigration-land hunger

a.      Pple saw little opportunities or land so they migrated

C.    Pple who migrated

1.      Different countries had different patterns of movement

a.      Almost 1/3 European migration from 1840-1920 came from British Isles

b.      German migration peaked in 1850s & 80s-then declined b/c industrializing gave jobs at home

c.      Italians kept leaving till 1914-reflecting slow growth

2.      USA had the most immigratioin-45%

a.      Many went to Asiatic Russia, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Australia, New Zealand

b.      Migrants-larger proportion of total population in Argentina, Brazil, Canada than in USA

III.  European Migrants

A.     Who were the immigrants?

1.      Poor pple from rural areas-small landowner

a.      Life threatened by small land estate agriculture, cheap, factory goods

2.      German peasants left b/c of “dwarf economy” w/tiny landholdings & declining craft industries

a.      Sell and buy cheaper land in USA

b.      Trying to stay ahead of poverty

B.     Determined to maintain or improve their status

1.      Great asset

2.      Came in prime of their life-ready to work hard

3.      Many were unmarried

4.      Several moved about Europe

C.    Many were migrants not immigrants

1.      Returned home after time abroad

2.      But still migrants or immigrants doesn’t’ matter-looked for work

D.    Russian Jews

1.      Left in peace under Alex II (assassinated) by non-Jew terrorists in 1881

2.      New czar policy of pogroms & savage discrimination

3.      5 million Jews-confined to Pale of Settlement

4.      Most land held by non-Jews

5.      Jews began to escape by migrating-never looked back

6.      Non-Jew migrants-access to land & returned more frequently

E.     Italians

1.      Depend on agriculture but w/cheap wheat from N. Am destroyed them-industry wasn’t advancing fast enough to provide jobs from the rapid population

2.      Most migrants were small, landowning peasants whose standard of living was falling (agr depression/overpop)

a.      Migration held hope of getting more land

3.      Brazil attracted Italians to their coffee plantations w/travel & promises of high wages

4.      No intention of permanent-“swallows”-split harvesting b/w Italy & Argentina

a.      Latin Am to Italy cost bout $25-$30 or as little as $8

5.      Dominated building trades/arch profession in Latin Am

6.      Many migrated to France

F.     Many pple from a village settle together miles away

1.      Strong individual sometimes led the way-others followed called “chain migration”

G.    Left by spirit of revolt & independence

1.      Pple felt frustrated by small elite classes who control church & govt & resisted demands for change, greater opportunity

2.      Migration slowed down when pple won basic political/social reforms

IV.  Asian Migrants

A.     Chinese, Japanese, Indians, Filipinos migrated also

1.      Their response to rural hardship

2.      Most went as indentured laborers to work on plantations/mines in Latin Am, Asia, Africa, Cali, Hawaii, Australia

a.      White estate owners used them to replace blacks after suppression of slave trade

b.      1840s-Cuba recruited Chinese laborers-under 8 yr contracts, paid 25 cents, fed potatoes, salted beef

1)     Spent lives as slaves

2)     Asians fled plantations/mines seeking greater opportunities

3.      European settlers demanded a halt to Chinese migration

B.     1880s-Americans/Austrialians built “great white walls”-discriminatory laws designed to keep Asians out

1.      Before 1914-policy of “whites only” in permanent settlement

2.      By 1913-Austrialia, Canada, USA-pple had higher avg incomes than pple in Britain

V.  Western Imperialism

VI.  The Scramble for Africa

A.     1880-European nations controlled only 10% of African continent

B.     France conquered Algeria 1830

C.    South Africa taken by British (used to be Dutch settlement at Cape Town) during wars w/Napoleon I

1.      Takeover angered Dutch-1835 Great Trek to middle to fight Zulu & Xhosa pples for land

a.      After 1853-The Boers/Afrikaners (descendants of Dutch) proclaim political independence/defend it against Brit armies

D.    Age of Discovery

1.      Portuguese still held old possession sin Angola & Mozambique

E.     European nations scramble for African possessions

1.      Only Ethiopia & Liberia stayed independent on the continent

2.      Years before 1914-control colonial govt in their empires

F.     Dutch settler republics

1.      Cecil Rhodes-Cape Colony-leads Brits over Afrikaner states & est protectorates over Bechuanaland & Rhodesia

2.      Transvaal-rich mines British conquer the Dutch in the Boer War (1899-1902)

3.      1910-their territories were united w/old Cape Colony & E province of Natal in new Union of S Africa est a “self-governing” colony

G.    Brit occupation of Egypt which est new model of formal political control

H.     Leopold II Belgium (1865-1909)

1.      1876-focus on central Africa

2.      Formed financial syndicate under his control to send Henry Stanley to Congo basin

a.  Stanley able to est trading stations, sign “treatires” w/Africican chiefs

3.      Actions alarm the French-who sent expedition w/Pierre de Brazza

a.      1880-Brazza signed treaty of protection w/chief of Teke tribe-est French protectorate on north bank of Congo River

I.         Jules Ferry of France & Otto von Bismarck of Germany arranged international conference on Africa in Belin 1884/85

1.      Est principle that European claims to African territory rested on effective occupation in order to be recognized by other states

a.      Meant that Europeans would push into interior regions from all sides & no single European power would be able to claim entire continent

2.      Conference recognized Leopold’s rule over neutral Congo free state-declared all of Congo basin a free-trade zone

a.      Also agreed to work to stop slavery & slave trade

J.      Germany-imperial power

1.      1884/85 political agitation for expansion increased

a.      Germany est protectorates over small African kingdoms, tribes in Togo, Cameroons, SW Africa, E Africa

2.      Bismarck cooperated against Brits w/France’s Ferry

a.      With Bismarck’s approval-France pressed toward Algeria, northward from Brazza’s formed protectorate on Congo River

b.      Object was Lake Chad, a malaria-infested swamp on edge of Sahara

K.     British

1.      Pushing north from Cape Colony & west from Zanzibar-southward got massacred by Muslims at Khartoum in 1885

2.      General Horatio H. Kitchener moved up Nile River

a.      Build railroad supply arms/reinforcements

b.      1898 Brit troops meet Muslims at Omdurman

1)     11,000 dead Muslim tribesmen

2)     Only 28 Brits were killed

b.      After Battle of Omdurman-Kitchener’s armies found small French force that occupied Fshoda

1)     Competition b/w France/England since Brits took Egypt-France had tried to beat them

a)     Result:  seriouls diplomatic crisis-threat of war

b)     Wracked by Dreyfus affair, unwilling to fight-France backed down-allow Brits to take over

c)      British conquest of Sudan

d)     Fate of Muslim force at Odurman was inflicted upon all native pple who resisted European rules

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