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AP European History: Unit 4, Day 2 and 3 (Netherlands)

AP European History Notes: Dutch independence, Flemings, Netherlands Revolt, Duke of Alva, Council of Blood, King Philip, Spanish Armada, Mary Queen of Scotts

UNIT 4, DAY 2 and 3

I.  The Netherlands Under Charles V

  1. Struggle for Dutch independence
  2. Antwerp-situated-Scheldt River, intersection of trade routes-internat commerce & finance-merchants gathered in bourse (xchange)
  3. Wealth of Dutch N-cities-fishing, shipping, internat banking
  4. 17 provinces of Netherlands-each self-governing, make own laws, collect taxes, ruler=Charles V
    1. Reps meet at States General-but important decisions refer back to province for approval
  5. Luther & Dutch translations of Bible-attract many to Protestantism
  6. Charles govt responded w/condemnation and mild repression-not effective-loyalty to Flemings-was born in Ghent raised in Netherlands
    1. Flemish-identified w/them
  7. 1556-addressed States General at Brussels-son Philip inherited Low Countries-Charles spoke Flemish-Philip in Spanish-no eng or fr-Charles one of their own-Philip Spanish

II.  The Revolt of the Netherlands (1566-1587)

  1. Lutheranism no threat-Calvinism is to Spanish rule-1560s-strong, militant minority of Calvinists in most cities in Netherlands
  2. Religion attracts middle class b/c of intellectual seriousness, moral gravity, emphasis on labor well done
  3. Lutherans taught respect for powers that be, Calvin reformed religion in 1570s to encourage opposition to “illegal” civil authorities
  4. 1559-Philip II appoints half-sis Margaret as regent of Netherlands-orders to rid Protestantism-introduce Inquisition
  5. Needs revenue to finance the govt of provinces-raised taxes
  6. Aug 1566-yr of high grain prices-destruction-Calvinist dest in Low Countries incited by pop. preaching-attacks aimed at religious images
  7. Destruction spread-tapers held to artwork, books, manuscripts
  8. 20,000 troops under Duke of Alva-exterminate religious/polit rebels
    1. “Council of Blood”-Margaret sickened-resigned-Alva solved financial crisis by levying 10% sales tax on ever transactions
  9. 1568-1578-civil war between C&P and 17Ps&Sp
    1. 1576-William of Orange-17Ps united
    2. 1578-Alexander Farnese-crushed revolt w/ German mercenaries-collapse of Antwerp
  10. 10 S provinces-Spanish-7 N provinces led by Holland-Union of Utrecht-1581: declared freedom-United Provinces of the Netherlands
  11. North-defensible, commercial nobility had main power, Protestant-South-Ardennes mts but relatively flat, landed nobility strong, Catholic
  12. United Provinces-asked Elizabeth I for help-hesitant, if she did-she would be provoking Philip II-wanted to avoid war but if she didn’t help then Farnese would crush Netherlands then Spain invade England
  13. 3 reasons

1.  Wars in Netherlands hurt Eng economy-when wool wasn’t exported lost of revenue for crown

  1. Murder of William the Silent (orange)-July 1584 eliminated a great P leader
  2. Collapse of Antwerp
  3. Feared invasion by Spain-for above reasons 250,000 pounds and 200,000 troops sent to aid Low Countries 1585-7

III.  Philip and the Spanish Armada

  1. St Lawrence-monastery-tomb for kings ancestors, royal palace
  2. Traveled a lot, worldly-deeply religious
  3. Toleration w/ growth of heresy, civil disorder, violence, bloodshed
  4. 1586-Mary Queen of Scots plot to assassinate Elizabeth-Philip backed conspiracy hoping to reunite Catholicism-beheaded 2/18/1587
  5. Pope Sixtus V learned of death in March-pay Philip 1 million gold ducats when Sp troops land in Eng
  6. Plan fleet of 150 ships-attack Eng navy-1587-reports of Turks seize Spain w/preoccupation w/Netherlands/Eng
  7. Philip prepare fleet to sail from Lisbon to Flanders-fight Liz navy meet Farnese transport Flemish army
  8. 5/9/1588-fleet left-130 vessels 123,790 cannonballs-30,000 men
  9. Eng fleet of 150 ships-met in Channel-Eng smaller, faster more maneuverable ships-Win!-storms, spoiled food, rank water, inadequate Sp ammunition-Sp ships scatter
  10. Spain then rebuilt navy, quality improved-Spain receives silver
  11. Liz supports Dutch-1609-Philip III agreed to truce
  12. Armada-spirit of defeatism-Eng-victory enhance david/goliath legends
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